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News & Events
Monday, 26 September 2022
The School of Law held a successful conference on ‘Oversight of National Security: Lessons from Australia and the United Kingdom’ on Friday 23rd September. The event, which was opened by the Minister for Justice, Helen McEntee, TD, was held to coincide with the publication of new legislation to establish an office of Independent Examiner of National Security Legislation, something that was recommended by the Commission on the Future of Policing in 2018. Current and previous holders of similar oversight offices in Australia, United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (Grant Donaldson SC, Lord David Anderson KBE KC and Professor Marie Breen-Smyth) addressed the conference along with other experts drawn from the fields of academia, human rights and security (Dr Jessie Blackbourn, Michael O’Neill and Dermot Woods). Professor Donncha O’Connell of University of Galway School of Law organised the conference and was a member of the Commission. The conference was also livestreamed on Zoom so that people can participate remotely. A video recording of the event will be uploaded shortly. The conference proceedings were reported in the media by the Irish Times and the Irish Examiner. Pictured above (L to R) are: Conference organiser and chair, Professor Donncha O’Connell of the School of Law, Dr Jessie Blackbourn, Durham University, Lord David Anderson KBE KC, former UK Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, Professor Marie Breen-Smyth, Independent Reviewer – Justice & Security for Northern Ireland, Dermot Woods, Director of the National Security Analysis Centre, Department of An Taoiseach and Michael O’Neill, Head of Legal, Irish Human Rights & Equality Commission
Tuesday, 20 September 2022
Book Discussion on '9/11 and the Rise of Global Anti-Terrorism Law: How the UN Security Council Rules the World' (CUP 2021) About this event Twenty years after the outbreak of the threat posed by international jihadist terrorism, which triggered the need for democracies to balance fundamental rights and security needs, 9/11 and the Rise of Global Anti-Terrorism Law offers an overview of counter-terrorism and of the interplay among the main actors involved in the field since 2001. This book aims to give a picture of the complex and evolving interaction between the international, regional and domestic levels in framing counter-terrorism law and policies. Targeting scholars, researchers and students of international, comparative and constitutional law, it is a valuable resource to understand the theoretical and practical issues arising from the interaction of several levels in counter-terrorism measures. It also provides an in-depth analysis of the role of the United Nations Security Council. Participants in the book will discuss their contributions and the volume overall: Prof. Arianna Vedaschi (Bocconi University), Prof. Martin Scheinin (EUI and Oxford University, former UN Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism), Prof. Fionnuala Ní Aoláin (University of Minnesota and Queens University of Belfast, current UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism), Dr. Chiara Graziani (Bocconi University) Prof. Daniel Alati, (McEwan University) ** Register for this free event on Eventbrite. ** ‘Since 9/11, the UN Security Council has become a global counter-terrorism legislator and actor. This impressive collection provides much needed analysis and critique of how the emergency intervention of the Security Council two decades ago has become normalized. It examines the Security Council’s significant and surprising impact on domestic laws and practices targeting terrorism financing, pre-crime, listing, internet censorship and intelligence co-operation.’ Kent Roach - author of The 9/11 Effect and Comparative Counter-Terrorism Law
Wednesday, 14 September 2022
AI can enable healthcare systems to offer better care to more people. However, only wise policy choices will assure its positive impact. How can governmental and other authorities better support the development of high-quality AI for diagnosis and clinical decision making? Do we have the systems in place to make the meaningful changes needed for doctors and hospital administrators to take genuine advantage of the potential of AI? What are the challenges they face? Frank Pasquale, Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School and former Chair of the Subcommittee on Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security of the U.S. National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, will address these issues in a wide-ranging talk on critical issues in liability, licensing, and reimbursement facing doctors, researchers, and entrepreneurs. Invited Inspioráid is a series of public lectures hosted and chaired by the Dean of the College of Business, Public Policy and Law, Professor Geraint Howells. For more information and to register, click here.
Thursday, 8 September 2022
The School of Law at the University of Galway and Dr Connie Healy invite you to a lecture entitled; “The work of Ireland’s Commercial Court: increasing international features” being delivered by Mr Justice David Barniville, President of the High Court, at the Aula Maxima, University of Galway at 6pm, on Tuesday the 27th September. CPD points will be available for this event. Register at https://lnkd.in/dCs3zMJZ
Thursday, 8 September 2022
AI can enable healthcare systems to offer better care to more people. However, only wise policy choices will assure its positive impact. How can governmental and other authorities better support the development of high-quality AI for diagnosis and clinical decision making? Do we have the systems in place to make the meaningful changes needed for doctors and hospital administrators to take genuine advantage of the potential of AI? What are the challenges they face? Frank Pasquale, Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School and former Chair of the Subcommittee on Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security of the U.S. National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, will address these issues in a wide-ranging talk on critical issues in liability, licensing, and reimbursement facing doctors, researchers, and entrepreneurs. Register here: https://lnkd.in/diK8kXzX The event will take place in Aula Maxima, University of Galway, on Thursday, 6 October at 5:30pm.
Wednesday, 8 June 2022
Dr Ioanna Tourkochoriti organised on June 7th a Workshop on Anti-Discrimination Law and Religion in Collaboration with Professors Mark Graber and Peter Danchin from the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law. The workshop’s texts will be published as a Handbook on Anti-Discrimination Law and Religion by Oxford University Press in the coming years. The workshop featured presentations by the following scholars: Colm O’Cinneide, Professor of Human Rights Law, University College London, Peter Danchin, Jacob A. France Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Research & Faculty Development, University of Maryland School of Law, Mark A. Graber, University System of Maryland Regents Professor, University of Maryland School of Law, Patricia Jeronimo, Professor University of Minho Law School, Jean Monnet Fellow, European University Institute, Anton Kok, Professor, University of Pretoria, Christopher McCrudden, Professor of Human Rights and Equality Law, Queens University Belfast, Mathias Möschel, Associate Professor, Central European University, Ioanna Tourkochoriti, Lecturer Above the Bar, School of Law, National University of Ireland, Galway, John Adenitire, Strategic Lecturer in Law, Queen Mary University of London. Dr Ioanna Tourkochoriti also organised at the Universirty of Maryland with Professors Graber and Danchin a twin workshop on the same topic featuring: Stuart Adams, President, Utah Senate and Senator for the Utah State Senate’s 22nd District, Benjamin Berger, Professor and York Research Chair in Pluralism and Public Law, Osgoode Hall Law School, Kera Birkeland, Representative, Utah House District 53, Louis Blond, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies, University of Cape Town , Caroline Corbin, Professor of Law and Dean’s Distinguished Scholar, University of Miami School of Law, Peter Danchin, Jacob A. France Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Research & Faculty Development, University of Maryland School of Law, Perry Dane, Professor of Law, Rutgers Law School, Mohammad Fadel, Professor and Toronto Research Chair for the Law and Economics of Islamic Law, University of Toronto Faculty of Law, Mark A. Graber, University System of Maryland Regents Professor, University of Maryland School of Law, Tarunabh Khaitan, Professor of Public Law and Legal Theory and Head of Research in the Bonavero Institute of Human Rights, University of Oxford, Andrew Koppelman, John Paul Stevens Professor of Law, Professor (by courtesy) of Political Science, Northwestern University, Ioanna Tourkochoriti, Lecturer Above the Bar, School of Law, National University of Ireland, Galway, Robin Fretwell Wilson, Mildred Van Voorhis Jones Chair in Law, University of Illinois College of Law and Director of the Institute of Government and Public Affairs for the University of Illinois System, Michel Rosenfeld, University Professor of Law and Comparative Democracy and Justice Sydney L. Robins Professor of Human Rights, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Heather Miller Rubens, Executive Director and Roman Catholic Scholar at the Institute for Islamic, Christian, and Jewish Studies (ICJS), Amy J. Sepinwall, Associate Professor of Legal Studies & Business Ethics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Winnifred Fallers Sullivan, Provost Professor, Religious Studies, Affiliate Professor of Law, Maurer School of Law and Co-Director, Center for Religion and the Human, Department of Religious Studies, Indiana University Bloomington, Marley Weiss, Professor of Law, University of Maryland School of Law.
Tuesday, 10 May 2022
Sligo students at the University’s School of Law named Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholars Two NUI Galway law students from Sligo have been awarded special scholarships created in partnership between the global law firm DLA Piper and the University’s School of Law. Annie Forde, from Enniscrone, Co Sligo, and Joan Ighile, from Sligo Town have been named the Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholars for the academic year 2021/2022. Both students are undertaking the undergrad degree Law (BCL), Criminology and Criminal Justice, at NUI Galway’s School of Law. The Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholarship is named after the Chairman Emeritus of the law firm who has family roots in the west of Ireland. It provides funding and support to enable and empower successful students to study a law degree at NUI Galway and is awarded in-part on academic merit. Maura Dineen, Partner at DLA Piper, met with the scholars on campus and shared interesting insights into her fascinating career advising domestic and international clients on tax matters. Ms Dineen said: “We are proud to partner with NUI Galway’s School of Law to support deserving students like Annie and Joan, as they pursue their studies in law. It was a pleasure to visit the campus, talk to the students about their experience and hear the positive impact the Terence O’Malley DLA Piper scholarship has had on their studies so far. We wish all of the students the very best in their studies and look forward to seeing what innovative thinking they contribute to the industry in the future.” Professor Martin Hogg, Head of the School of Law at NUI Galway, said: “We are delighted to have the continued support by DLA Piper of two more students under this scholarship programme. The educational opportunities which these scholarships afford are highly valued by the School and by the scholars and we’re very grateful to DLA Piper for this investment in two lawyers of the future.” The scholarship supports scholars throughout their four-year law degree to the value of €2,500 annually (total value of €10,000 per scholar). It is open to first year students who are enrolled in one of NUI Galway’s five full law degrees and have a home address in the west of Ireland (to include all counties in Connacht plus counties Donegal and Clare). Annie Forde said: “Studying Law at NUI Galway has been a highly enjoyable experience and I am grateful that DLA Piper are able to support me in my academic endeavours. This scholarship has had a positive impact on my life and I hope that in my future legal career that I can make a positive change in people’s lives.” Joan Ighile said: “This scholarship has given me the opportunity to thoroughly enjoy my study of Law at NUI Galway with lessened financial stress. It has been a great support to me, and I’d like to thank DLA Piper for their great generosity in continuing to support Irish students pursuing a career in Law." The Scholarship was launched in 2020 at NUI Galway following Terence O’Malley’s retirement from a highly-regarded legal career, serving in various roles including as DLA Piper's US Managing Partner, US Co-Chairman, and Global Co-Chief executive officer. The inaugural scholars were Ava Cullinan, Law (BCL) student from Kilrush, Co Clare and Emily Donnellan, Law (BCL), Criminology and Criminal Justice student from Maree, Co Galway. In addition to the scholarship, a separate annual Terence O’Malley DLA Piper bursary is awarded to a NUI Galway Law student achieving the highest grade in the University’s Law and Innovation module. DLA Piper is a global law firm with lawyers located in more than 40 countries throughout the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia Pacific. DLA Piper established in Ireland in 2019 with offices in Dublin. DLA Piper clients range from multinational, Global 1000, and Fortune 500 enterprises to emerging companies developing industry-leading technologies. For full details about this scholarship, including terms and conditions, visit: www.nuigalway.ie/dlapiperscholarship Ends
Tuesday, 10 May 2022
Congratulations to Sahara Nankan on a successful PhD Viva. Sahara is an Irish Research Council PhD Scholarship Awardee (2019-22) and NUI Galway Hardiman Scholar (2018-2019). Thesis: The Role of Gender-Responsive Participation in Water and Sanitation Rights Adjudication External Examiner: Professor Beth Goldblatt (UT Sydney) Internal Examiner: Dr Anna Arstein-Kerslake Chair: Professor Ray Murphy Supervisor: Professor Siobhán Mullally
Monday, 9 May 2022
“The Global Crisis of Constitutional Democracy” Date: 8th – 11th June Location: In Person at NUI Galway (Saturday's seminar will be held on Zoom) If you would like to attend please email: email@example.com Schedule Wednesday, June 8: Democracy in Crisis? Antecedents and Social Preconditions 9:00-10-20: Mark A. Graber, “Hidden in Plain Sight: The Forgotten Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution” 10:30-11:50: Peter Danchin, “Navigating the Backlash Against Global Law and Institutions” 1:30-3:00: Class discussing of Graber and Danchin Thursday, June 9: The Political Theories of Free Speech: Two Models of Freedom 9:00-10:20: Ioanna Tourkochoriti, Freedom of Expression: The Revolutionary Roots of American and French Legal Thought (Cambridge University Press, 2022) (30 minute presentation, hour discussion) 10:30-11:50: Discussion of Tourkochoriti, Freedom of Expression Friday, June 10: Constitutionalism or Constitutional Democracy? Intellectual History and Implications 9:00-10:20: Martin Loughlin, Against Constitutionalism (Harvard University Press, 2022)(30 minute presentation, hour discussion) 10:30-11:50: Discussion of Loughlin Saturday, June 11: Academic Freedom in Contemporary Constitutional Democracies 8:00-9:20: Adrienne Stone, Open Minds, Academic Freedom and Freedom of Speech in Australia (LaTrobe University Press, 2021), via zoom (30 minute presentation, hour discussion) 9:30-10:50: Discussion of Stone, TBA 1:30-3:00: Wrap-up Discussion led by Professors Tourkochoriti, Danchin, and Graber
Tuesday, 29 March 2022
NUI Galway School of Law has recently become a member of the Law Schools Global League and is the first institution in the Republic of Ireland to become a member of the League, which consists of leading law schools from all over the world. As a member of the League, the School will have the opportunity to collaborate with other law schools with an interest in global, transnational, and international legal education. The School’s membership will provide exciting opportunities for both its staff and students. Staff will have the opportunity to engage and collaborate with a number of research groups including Anti-Corruption, Human Rights and New Technologies & Law, to name a few. The School’s students will have the opportunity to participate in the League’s fortnight long Summer School which is being held this year in July in São Paolo and Rio. This year the Summer School’s theme will be “Technology, Innovation & Law: the Impact on Legal Education and Legal Services”. About LSGLThe LSGL seeks to stimulate academic debate as well as cooperation in both education and research concerning the globalization of law. Serving as a platform for sharing knowledge, the LSGL aspires to contribute to the debate on the globalization of law and its implications on legal education, research and practice. The LSGL brings together law schools that share a commitment not only to the globalization of law, but also to integrating global law in their teaching and research. Every year, the League organizes a number of activities, including conferences and a summer school centered on the theme of law and globalization, besides setting up joint-research and joint-teaching activities. Find out more about the Law Schools Global League
Sunday, 27 March 2022
Congratulations to the two groups of final year students in our Legal German module who were shortlisted for the CIGS (Centre for Irish-German Studies) Video Competition, supported by the German-Irish Chamber of Commerce. The two student groups consisted of: Katie Feerick, Leoni Leonard, Ciara Long and Victoria Osikoya who produced a video on Friedrich Engels and Mary Burns. Lorna McGrath, Adam Page and Dora Papp who produced a video on Arnacrusha. The winning group videos were announced at a virtual public event on the 21st March which was attended by the German Ambassador to Ireland H.E. Cord Meier-Klodt and the Irish Ambassador to Germany H.E. Dr. Nicholas O' Brien. The student groups shortlisted were interviewed by Derek Scally, German Correspondent for the Irish Times and the winners were decided by a public vote. We are delighted to announce that one of our student groups which included Katie Feerick, Leoni Leonard, Ciara Long and Victoria Osikoya came third for their video on Friedrich Engels and Mary Burns.
Thursday, 10 February 2022
Housing – or the challenges in accessing affordable housing, is emerging as a key issue for the European Union. As part of the Conference on the Future of Europe, NUI Galway hosted a Housing Event in December 2021, supported by the European Movement Ireland and The Housing Agency. The Event was opened by the Minister of State for European Affairs, Thomas Byrne TD. Expert speakers from a number of EU-wide organisations involved in housing provision, financial regulation, policy-making, advocacy, research, homelessness, and housing and disability rights across Member States, with clear proposals on housing in the future EU context. The absence of any gender equality objectives in housing policy-making at either Member State or EU level emerged as a key issue. The Report points to the urgent need for housing to be a central part of the debate on the Future of Europe. Addressing EU citizens’ access to secure and affordable housing in the Future of Europe requires commitments and actions from national, regional and local governments and organisations, as well as European Union institutions. The Report of the Event, which includes a summary of the presentation, together with other Reports, and the Concept Paper for the Event, is now available on the website of the Centre for Housing Law, Rights and Policy at NUI Galway. Watch the Event Video CoFoE Housing Event Part 1 CoFoE Housing Event Part 2 CoFoE Housing Event Part 3 We hope that this Report and the accompanying Video of the Event will contribute to the healthy debate within the European Union, about how to organise our housing systems, for the benefit of all. Professor Padraic Kenna. 10th February 2022
Monday, 31 January 2022
NUI Galway School of Law is delighted to see its graduate Stephen O’Flaherty named in The Lawyer Hot 100 for 2022. This is one of the highest accolades awarded to lawyers in England who are chosen for their excellence in diverse areas of legal practice. Stephen shares the honour this year with other top solicitors and barristers including Baroness Helena Kennedy QC. Stephen graduated from NUI Galway with a BA degree in 2003 and a LLB (Bachelor of Laws) in 2008. Having qualified as a solicitor in England in 2012, he joined Lewis Silkin, a leading London law firm which is noted for expertise in employment, entertainment, sports and immigration law, among other areas. The firm also has offices in Dublin and Belfast. Stephen, who is Managing Associate at Lewis Silkin, was named as one of the top 100 lawyers because of his work in building up the firm’s sports immigration practice. He previously received glowing commendations in Legal 500 as an outstanding sports and immigration lawyer. Over the years, he has advised many elite sports clubs and athletes, and football clubs in particular. He is noted for having managed the immigration aspects of transfers for 15 clubs from the top three tiers of English professional football, including 11 from the Premier League and 4 from the Women’s Super League, during the past year. He has also been advising on the use of GBE scoring technology to help streamline international player recruitment for football clubs, providing an important solution for clubs in the wake of Brexit. We extend our warmest congratulations to Stephen and wish him continuing success.
Monday, 17 January 2022
Congratulations to Eric Ehigie, 3rd year Law and Business Student who contributed to the book The Liminal: Notes on Life, Race, and Direct Provision in Ireland. Eric's compelling chapter in the book discusses “The Problem With Our National Conversation About Racism”. The book challenges all who read it to reassess privileges and socially ingrained biases that have allowed institutionalisation to repeatedly happen in Ireland. It includes testimonies from asylum seekers, as well as essays from advocates and activists from a broad range of backgrounds in social justice, journalism and healthcare. Eric, said: “I’m deeply honoured to have been one of the contributors to The Liminal: Notes on Life, Race, and Direct Provision in Ireland, composed by the remarkably diligent and inspiring Fiadh Melina. As conversations about race, diversity, and the under-acknowledged experiences of many within our country rise to the forefront of our nation’s consciousness, this book is timely and ever-pertinent.” Eric is a Politics Coordinator at Black and Irish, a YouTube Content-Creator on global, political and social issues, and a Youth Engagement Officer at the Longford Africans Network. Find out more about the book
Thursday, 9 December 2021
“In order to improve inclusion, we first had to understand the barriers to inclusion and participation.” - Inclusive Learning at NUI Galway Researchers at NUI Galway have revealed the lived experience of postgraduate students before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. While the vast majority of students surveyed prior to the pandemic found their learning environment at the University inclusive, the proportion dropped during the pandemic. The report was completed by members of the Inclusive Learning at NUI Galway project, Dr Shivaun Quinlivan, Dr Lucy-Ann Buckley and Dr Dinali Wijeratne and set out to enhance inclusive teaching and learning practice at the University for postgraduate students, particularly those from diverse backgrounds. Welcoming the report, President of NUI Galway, Professor Ciarán Ó hÓgartaigh, said: “I am delighted at the launch of this report on inclusive learning at NUI Galway. We have committed in our University Strategy: Shared Vision: Shaped by Values to ensuring that our research informs attitudes and policies about diversity and disadvantage, to raising awareness, and ultimately to removing barriers to equality and diversity within our University and for the public good. This report speaks directly to these values and, most importantly, it places the student voice at the centre.” More than 100 students took part in the first survey in March 2020 and again, in December 2020, more than 100 students took part. The surveys do not claim to be representative or statistically significant but provide a snapshot of the perceptions of a range of students at a particular time. Key findings from the report: 85% of students surveyed prior to the pandemic said they found their learning environment at NUI Galway inclusive. However, 6% of students did not find it inclusive. 66% of students surveyed during the pandemic found their learning experience to be inclusive, while 13% did not find it inclusive. Students generally found teaching arrangements pre-Covid to be inclusive. In many cases, staff were praised for their commitment and support, and students emphasised that staff were approachable and helpful. 67% of students said the pandemic had made their learning environment less inclusive, with more female students than male students reporting this. Just 9% of students surveyed pre-Covid saw other students as non-inclusive, while 2% saw teaching staff as non-inclusive. Some students found remote learning moreinclusive, e.g. some students with disabilities (though by no means all) found their courses more accessible when teaching went virtual. Students with disabilities raised a range of issues regarding accessibility, including issues relating to physical infrastructure and learning materials. However, they also identified significant positive supports in their learning environment, particularly from the University’s Disability Support Service. The research also found that the lack of suitable and affordable childcare was a major barrier to learning for many postgraduate students who were parents. This had a significant practical and emotional impact. Many students experienced significant difficulties in securing appropriate and affordable accommodation. Often this was due to general difficulties with the rental market, but the difficulties were particularly acute for international students, particularly those with children. Students reported a range of attitudinal barriers which impacted their learning environment. These arose largely from negative stereotypes and unfavourable attitudes linked to factors such as gender, race, sexual orientation and disability. The issue of postgraduate research students doing unpaid work was also identified in the research and the report acknowledges the University is developing a policy on pay related to this. Dr Quinlivan, joint lead of the project and co-author of the report, said: “In order to improve inclusion, we first have to understand the barriers to inclusion and participation experienced by postgraduate students at NUI Galway.” Dr Lucy-Ann Buckley, joint project lead and report co-author, said: “We felt it was really important to engage with our students, and hear their voice - this will enable us to take steps to address the issues they face. We hope the lasting legacy of this research will be to improve the learning experience for all our students.” The report makes a range of recommendations to the university. These include the development of an anti-racism policy and a reasonable accommodation policy for students with disabilities, the provision of training, and the gathering and monitoring of student diversity data. Cameron Keighron, student partner on the project and former Student’s Union Education Officer at NUI Galway, said: “It's wonderful to see the final report looking at the experiences of postgraduate students in NUI Galway. This is a group that is often left without a voice, and this work is allowing their lived experience to influence positive change within our campus. “We must listen to what systems, policies and attitudes on our campus have led to exclusion or discrimination and put steps in place to change this, with this report giving us a great set of recommendations to begin this journey.” The National Forum for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education funded the report. Read the Report
Thursday, 25 November 2021
Housing and the Future of Europe Professor Padraic Kenna - NUI Galway Housing – or the challenges facing young people in accessing affordable housing, is emerging as one of the key issues for the European Union. While the great majority of Europeans live in good quality, affordable housing as a result of major State and private investment since the 1950s, the picture for young Europeans is not so rosy. Housing as a European Issue The majority of people aged 18-34 across the EU still live with their parents, largely because they cannot afford to rent or buy. While there are major differences in the housing situation in every Member State, all prosperous European cities face similar challenges, especially those with population growth and inward migration. The lack of affordable housing particularly impacts on poor and socially excluded people, such as LGBTQI+ young people, lone parents and migrants. Almost 10% of the EU-27 population (and 35% of those who are poor) live in households that spend 40% or more of their disposable income on housing. Homelessness has risen across Europe, although this year, the European institutions, Member State governments and civil society have committed to combatting homelessness under the European Platform on Combatting Homelessness, with a target set for ending homelessness by 2030. More and more Europeans are looking to the EU to tackle the challenges of our times in such areas as climate change and environmental protection, economic stability, digitalisation of society, data protection, the sharing economy, responsible lending, good jobs, improved quality of life, recognition of diversity, fundamental rights and social inclusion. Could the EU do more in the field of housing? It is important to remember that the EU has no direct competences/powers in housing as such – it is unlikely to ever build, sell or rent homes. For example, in relation to owner-occupation or housing as property, Article 345 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU states that “This Treaty shall in no way prejudice the rules in Member States governing the system of property ownership.” Of course, Member State constitutional and legal provisions on the regulation of use of property in the public interest are mirrored in the Treaties. But housing is also about more than property, and despite all the differences between national housing systems, there are many common issues facing all Europeans. Some of these are relevant for, and overlap with, EU policies, which have already been approved by Member States. In many areas which relate to housing, Member States have agreed to share their competences/powers, such as in supervision of mortgage lenders, setting of euro-area interest rates, consumer protection and fundamental rights, and in non-discrimination on gender or other grounds. The European Commission, through the European Semester, and referring to the European Pillar of Social Rights, provides Member States with policy support, guidance and orientation on how to design efficient national policies aimed at ensuring citizens’ access to affordable, secure and accessible social housing. The European Commission assists Member States to deal with housing supply shortage, dysfunctional housing markets, macroeconomic imbalances and insufficient stock of social housing. Many issues which affect access to, and enjoyment of, housing rights are impacted by the unique architecture of the Economic and Monetary Union. These include the rules on social and affordable housing as a Service of General Economic Interest, and the rules on Member State budget deficits and borrowing levels for investment. Of course, these rules do not in any way prevent Member States from acting to address national housing system deficits. There are proposals to separate investment in social and affordable housing from the rules on general government debt, avoiding State budget deficits. The European Commission, European Parliament and European Central Bank support measures which limit excessive house price increases, and have also recommended increased investment of all forms of social and affordable housing to promote wider access to adequate, secure and affordable housing for Europeans. Indeed, EU institutions are beginning to recognise the need for choice, stability and balance in housing systems across Europe. In 2021, the European Parliament Report on ‘access to decent and affordable housing for all’ called for adequate, energy-efficient and healthy housing for all Europeans, and major investment in social, public, affordable and energy-efficient housing. The EU Green Deal is especially significant for housing investment across Europe. The decarbonisation of the EU economy by 2050 is a common objective in the fight against climate change, and the energy used for heating and cooling buildings is one of its main causes. Through the Green Deal, the European Union set itself the goal of making buildings and housing more energy-efficient. The European Single Market and social market economy of the EU also impact on housing on many levels. But, of course, access to adequate housing is essential for the full participation of every EU citizen in society. Looking to the Future All of these issues were up for discussion at the Conference on the Future of Europe Event on Housing, hosted by NUI Galway on 9th December 2021, in association with European Movement Ireland and The Housing Agency. This EU initiative seeks to open a space for debate to address Europe’s challenges and priorities, and it is important that housing is treated as one of the important issues for Europe’s young (and not so young) citizens. One of the key questions addressed by presenters and participants at the NUI Galway Event was “what your ideal Europe would look like in the next 10-20 years”. Of course, this lead to many other questions. Will everyone in Europe be able to access decent and affordable housing? How much will we pay for our homes? Will our housing systems contribute to climate change, or will we have sustainable and energy efficient homes? Will our communities be inclusive of all? Will our housing policies reflect gender equality? Will we have segregation based on income, identity, disability, nationality or connectivity? Will our students and young people be able to access good quality affordable housing if they chose to study or work in another Member State? Will the EU help us ensure that no-one is homeless due to lack of housing? Will our housing systems be defined by boom-bust cycles and unpredictable mortgage interest rates for aspiring home-owners? Will the EU support a minimum standard of housing in line with human dignity for all? Will the human right to home take priority in housing-related policymaking, or will it be something else? What does the commitment in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights “to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient resources” really mean? How does the European Pillar of Social Rights actually inform EU policies? Of course, we found that the answers to these questions involve national, regional and local actors and organisations, as well as European Union institutions. We also agreed that it is really time to include housing as part of the Europe-wide debate on the Future of Europe. We will develop and share better solutions, working together as Europeans. I wish to sincerely thank all those who presented to this Event, as well as the moderators Cllr Alison Gilliland, Lord Mayor of Dublin, and Bob Jordan, CEO of the Housing Agency (sponsors of the Event). Special thanks to colleagues Professor Martin Hogg and Professor Geraint Howells, and Researchers Áine Dillon and David Martin, with Cormac Staunton of Staunton Media. The sponsorship and assistance of Stephen O’ Shea and Noelle O’ Connell of the European Movement Ireland was invaluable. We hope that this Report and the accompanying video of the Event available on the CHLRP website. Will contribute to the ongoing debate within the European Union about how organise our housing systems for benefit of all. Professor Padraic Kenna. 1st February 2022. Link to the Report on the Conference on the Future of Europe Housing Event Link to the Full Video on the Conference on the Future of Europe Housing Event  EU funding for housing projects is available through the European Regional Development Fund, the Just Transition Fund, InvestEU, ESF+, Horizon Europe, Next Generation EU, Recovery and Resilience Facility, Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative (CRII) and the Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+). The European Investment Bank provides low interest long term loans for social and affordable housing.  EU funding for housing projects is available through the European Regional Development Fund, the Just Transition Fund, InvestEU, ESF+, Horizon Europe, Next Generation EU, Recovery and Resilience Facility, Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative (CRII) and the Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+). The European Investment Bank provides low interest long term loans for social and affordable housing.
Tuesday, 30 November 2021
Dr Charles O’Mahony (Lecturer in Law) and Dr Fiona Morrissey (Adjunct Lecturer in Law) have published a Report for the Non-Governmental Organisation Mental Health Reform. The Report is titled “A Human Rights Analysis of the Draft Heads of a Bill to Amend the Mental Health Act 2001”. In the Report Dr O’Mahony and Dr Morrissey provide legal analysis on the recently published Heads of Bill, which proposes significant changes to the 2001 Act. Based on their analysis of the Heads of Bill, the authors make several recommendations, which are aimed at strengthening respect for the human rights of persons subject to the legislation. The Report sets out comprehensively the relevant regional and international human rights law and they used this body of law as a framework for analysing the Heads of Bill. Their Report addresses several key areas, which include: Part 8 on Children, the new guiding principles, the definition of “mental disorder”, the voluntary category, the intermediate category, the involuntary category, and allied issues. A number of other key provisions will be examined such as ending the use of coercion, The need for independent advocacy and the complaints mechanism for persons under the 2001 Act. The Report is available here https://www.mentalhealthreform.ie/campaigns/reform-the-mental-health-act/
Friday, 12 November 2021
Cassie Roddy-Mullineaux, from Rosscahill, Co Galway, graduated with a BA and Bachelor of Laws (LLB), placing first in her year, before graduating with a first class honours LLM in International Human Rights in 2020. The Law Student of the Year award recognises and celebrates the academic legal achievements and other overall achievements of a student studying law in a third level college or university. Ms Roddy-Mullineaux was awarded the accolade in recognition of her outstanding achievements while studying at NUI Galway’s School of Law and the University’s Irish Centre for Human Rights (ICHR). She said: “I am over the moon to have won the award for Law Student of the Year at the Irish Law Awards 2021. Completing the LLM in International Human Rights completely changed my outlook on legal practice and how I wanted to contribute as a lawyer. I'm extremely grateful to the Irish Centre for Human Rights and NUI Galway School of Law for the generous support of the staff and community who afforded me so many opportunities during the LLM and have truly helped to shape my legal career.” Professor Martin Hogg, Head of NUI Galway’s School of Law, said: “This award is incredibly well deserved and the Law School is delighted for Cassie. Cassie was an outstanding member of our LLM in International Human Rights class, not only distinguishing herself in her studies and research but making impactful contributions in a range of projects on which she worked with her classmates, our staff, and NGOs. We hope that her achievements will inspire current and future students to aim as high as she has.” Since graduating, Ms Roddy-Mullineaux has been working as a lawyer with AWO, a new data rights agency, at the intersection of data rights and human rights. She advises clients on a wide range of data and privacy issues. In collaboration with Article Eight Advocacy, Ms Roddy-Mullineaux continued to work with the new cohort of students in the Human Rights Law Clinic at the University’s Irish Centre for Human Rights throughout 2020-2021 on the Mother and Baby data protection hub, an online resource to help survivors of the Mother and Baby Homes request their personal data from the bodies that hold it. Interim Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, Professor Ray Murphy, said: “Cassie embodies the perfect mix of academic scholarship and human rights activism. We are delighted with the richly deserved recognition this prestigious award gives her.” Ms Roddy-Mullineaux was involved in a number of projects during her studies at NUI Galway, including: Being part of the ICHR representative team at Ireland’s United Nation's CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination) review in Dec 2019. She spoke to the CERD Committee in Geneva on Ireland’s climate racism. She also contributed to and helped compile the ICHR’s shadow report. Being part of the ICHR’s Human Rights Law Clinic, directed by Dr Maeve O’Rourke, she worked on the My Data Rights project, an online resource to help survivors of historical and institutional abuses in Ireland use GDPR to access their personal data. Working with environmental group, Safety Before LNG, she co-wrote a legal opinion on the compatibility of a legal ban on fracked gas imports with EU and WTO trade laws. Completing a legal research placement with the Global Legal Action Network working on business-related human rights abuses. Assisting NUI Galway’s Dr Padraic Kenna with researching European Convention on Human Rights arguments relating to the Case of the Century (climate litigation) in France.
Tuesday, 26 October 2021
Our research seminar series will feature papers on a range of legal and socio-legal topics from colleagues and guest speakers. Sessions will take place on Tuesdays at 2pm and remotely via MS Teams (unless announced otherwise). All are welcome to attend – please email firstname.lastname@example.org for meeting links. October 26 Dr. Ioanna Tourkochoriti "The Ashers Bakery Case and the Compelled Speech Argument" November 9 Dr. Maureen O’Sullivan "Vegetarianism in the courts - a multiplicity of circumstances (and what to do about it)" November 16 Ursula Connolly "Conceptualising bullying actions in Ireland – now you see it, now you don’t" December 7 Dr. Rónán Kennedy "Algorithms, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in the Irish Legal Services Market" December 15 Prof. Dave Cowan (University of Bristol) "Governing the pandemic: A case study" February 1 Dr. Edel Hughes "Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Invisibility on Conflict-Related Male Sex Violence in Syria" February 15 Dr. Anna Arstein-Kerslake "Right to Legal Capacity and Minority Groups: Applying Article 12 of the CRPD beyond disability" March 1 Dr. Diarmuid Griffin "Sentencing serious sex offenders: How judges decide when discretion is wide" March 8 Dr. Roisin Mulgrew "Defining Death in Prisons" April 12 Prof. Charles Ngwena (University of Pretoria) "African 'transgender' human rights: emerging jurisprudence" April 19 Prof. Shreya Atrey (University of Oxford) "Exponential Inequalities: What can equality law do?"
Tuesday, 28 September 2021
Terence O’Malley on campus visit to meet inaugural scholars The Chairman Emeritus of global law firm DLA Piper has heralded the impact of a special new scholarship set up in partnership with the School of Law at NUI Galway. The Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholarship provides funding and support to enable and empower successful students to study a law degree at NUI Galway. Terence O’Malley, who has family roots in the west of Ireland, was welcomed to the campus by Professor Geraint Howells, Executive Dean of the College of Business, Public Policy and Law. He also met the inaugural scholars, Bachelor of Civil Law students Ava Cullinan, from Kilrush, Co Clare and Emily Donnellan, from Maree, Co Galway. Terry O’Malley said: “I am delighted to have the opportunity to visit the NUI Galway campus and meet the first scholars. It is very gratifying to hear about the impact of the awards as well as having the opportunity to visit the School of Law and learn about the education and learning on offer.” Professor Howells said: “It is a pleasure to welcome Terence O’Malley to NUI Galway and thank him in person for DLA Piper’s generous support of NUI Galway students. Partnership with Irish and global law firms are key to ensuring that we can attract and retain a diverse student group who will go on to make an impact and contribution in their fields.” The Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholarship launched in 2020 at NUI Galway following Mr O’Malley’s retirement from a highly-regarded legal career, serving in various roles including as DLA Piper's US Managing Partner, US Co-Chairman, and Global Co-Chief executive officer. In addition to the scholarship provides funding and support to successful students over the course of their law degree, a separate annual bursary is also awarded to the student who achieves the highest grade in the University’s new Law and Innovation module. Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholar Ava Cullinan said: “Having received this scholarship, the financial burden I carry throughout my journey to become a solicitor has greatly lessened. I believe that a disadvantaged background should not hinder me from accessing my full potential, and it is in this regard that I cannot understate the importance and impact of the scholarship on both my personal and professional aspirations.” Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholar Emily Donnellan said: “The scholarship has afforded me relief and a greater sense of security while pursuing my studies so far. I hope to represent and advocate for people in the justice system. I enjoy working with and helping others and I would hope to make a positive contribution to society through a career in Law. I am grateful for the opportunity and the sense of relief the scholarship has provided me with while I pursue my studies, having allowed me to focus and prioritise studying for my course." DLA Piper is a global law firm with lawyers located in more than 40 countries throughout the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia Pacific. DLA Piper established in Ireland in 2019 with offices in Dublin. DLA Piper clients range from multinational, Global 1000, and Fortune 500 enterprises to emerging companies developing industry-leading technologies. Applications details for the 2021 Terence O’Malley DLA Piper Scholarship will be announced in October. For further details visit www.nuigalway.ie/dlapiperscholarship. Ends
Friday, 17 September 2021
NUI Galway has announced the new Head of the School of Law – Professor Martin Hogg. Professor Hogg will take up the new role in November, having joined from the University of Edinburgh, where he served as Head of School and Dean of Law. Professor Geraint Howells, Executive Dean for the College of Business, Public Policy and Law at NUI Galway, said: "We are delighted to have Martin joining us. He is a leading contract law scholar and an experienced leader. “Our Law School has an outstanding reputation for its teaching and scholarship. Martin is an ideal person to help us build on our strengths and develop new initiatives to meet the needs of our community." Professor Hogg said: “I’m honoured and very happy to be joining NUI Galway’s Law School as Head of School and Established Professor in November. “The Law School is an inspiring centre of learning and research, whose students and staff are widely known for their commitment to justice and the rule of law. I’m looking forward to meeting as many of them as I can in the coming months, as well as alumni and practitioner communities. “The whole NUI Galway community has already extended to me the warmest of Galway welcomes, for which I am very grateful.” Professor Hogg’s research interests lie in all aspects of the law of obligations, including comparative obligations theory, contract and promise, and fundamental structural language in the law of obligations. He has published widely in this field, including Promises and Contract Law and Obligations: Law and Language with Cambridge University Press. He is the Scottish Reporter for the European Tort Law Yearbook. Professor Hogg spent two years qualifying as a Solicitor with Dundas & Wilson CS in Edinburgh, before being appointed Lecturer at the Faculty of Law at Edinburgh in 1995. He was appointed Senior Lecturer in 2004 and in 2013 he was appointed to a Chair in the Law of Obligations. Professor Hogg is a (non-practising) member of the Faculty of Advocates (the Scottish Bar). Professor Hogg brings with him a wealth of experience, having previously held office as Associate Dean of the Faculty of Law, Director of Undergraduate Studies, Director of Teaching, Deputy Director of Research, and Convener of the Board of Studies. He took office as Deputy Head of the Law School in Edinburgh in 2014, and became Head of School and Dean of Law in 2017. Professor Shane Darcy, Interim Head of the School of Law, said: “On behalf of my colleagues at the School of Law, I would like to extend a warm welcome to Professor Hogg. We are very excited to have him join us as Head of the School of Law and very much look forward to working with him in this role at NUI Galway.” NUI Galway’s School of Law delivers innovative legal education in a dynamic school dedicated to impactful, high quality legal research. It hosts the internationally renowned Irish Centre for Human Rights and the Centre for Disability Law & Policy. The School has introduced several new programmes in recent years, including the undergraduate degrees Law (BCL), Criminology and Criminal Justice and Law (BCL) and Human Rights. It also offers a suite of postgraduate LLM programmes and is home to a vibrant doctoral community. Further information www.nuigalway.ie/law
Monday, 13 September 2021
Online Seminar Friday 22 October 2021 10.00 am – 5.00 pm Irish Council for Civil LibertiesWhitaker Institute and School of Law,National University of Ireland GalwaySchool of Law, University of Limerick Funded by the Irish Research Council 9.30 Login 10.00 KeynoteThe Hon Mr Justice Frank Clarke, Chief Justice of Ireland – Title TBC 10.15 Session 1 – Judicial Conduct and Ethics in Ireland: The Context Chair: Dr Rónán Kennedy Doireann Ansbro, ICCL: International Standards on Judicial Conduct and Ethics Ray Byrne, Adjunct Full Professor, UCD: The Bangalore Principles and the Judicial Council Act 2019 Dr Laura Cahillane, UL: Analysing the New Judicial Conduct Framework 11.30 Break 11.45 Session 2 – Judicial Conduct and Ethics in Comparative Perspective Chair: Ray Byrne Dr Sophie Turenne, University of Cambridge: Judicial Conduct, Complaints and Discipline in England and Wales: Key Features and Issues Prof Daniela Cavallini, University of Bologna: The Italian Case: The Impact of the 2006 Reform on Transparency and Effectiveness of Disciplinary Action. Current debate Silvio R. Vinceti, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia: How (Not) to Try a Judge. Judicial Discipline in Italy and Ireland 13.15 Lunch 14.15 Session 3 – What is Judicial Misconduct? Chair: The Hon Mr Justice Brian Murray Eunice Collins, University of Oxford: Defining Judicial Misconduct Dr David Fennelly, TCD: Equal Treatment in the Court Process Dr Brian Barry, TUD: The Definition and Nature of Judicial Impartiality 15.15 Break 15.30 Session 4 – Investigating Complaints Chair: Dr Brian Barry Caoimhe Kiernan, TUD: Who Judges the Judges? A Comparative Analysis of the Composition of the Bodies Responsible for Investigating Complaints against the Judiciary Dr Patrick O’Brien, Oxford Brooks University: Disentangling the Formal and Informal in Judicial Conduct Processes Prof Colin Scott, UCD: Regulating Judicial Conduct Responsively 16.30 Conclusions, Final Discussion, and Next Steps 17.00 Close Registration is now open for this event – please sign up at https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZIkceygqDMpG9doCTra3P9L4oxvY5zFgn3g Enquiries to: email@example.com or to Rónán Kennedy (Law School, National University of Ireland Galway) at +353-91-495626. Funded by the Irish Research Council.
Thursday, 26 August 2021
European and International Perspectives Online Seminar Friday 17 September 2021 10.00 am – 5.00 pm Irish Council for Civil LibertiesWhitaker Institute and School of Law,National University of Ireland GalwaySchool of Law, University of Limerick Funded by the Irish Research Council 9.30 Login 10.00 Session 1 – Judicial Education and Training in Ireland Chair: Dr Laura Cahillane, UL Doireann Ansbro, ICCL: International Standards in Judicial Education and Training Prof Paul McCutcheon, UL: Review of Judicial Studies Institute 2003 Dr Rónán Kennedy, NUI Galway: Review of Judicial Studies Committee 2019 The Hon Mr Justice Richard Humphreys, High Court of Ireland: Judicial Education and Training in Ireland – A Judge’s View 11.30 Break 11.45 Session 2 – Judicial Skills and Judgecraft Chair: Her Honour Judge Rosemary Horgan, Circuit Court of Ireland Prof Cheryl Thomas, UCL: Judicial Training in the UK Mr Justice Gerard Tangenberg, SSR: The Place of Skills in Judicial Education Ms Justice Adèle Kent, National Judicial Institute of Canada: Teaching Judicial Skills 13.15 Lunch 14.15 Session 3 – Developing Judicial Skills in Ireland Chair: Dr Rónán Kennedy, NUI Galway Dr Niamh Howlin & Dr Mark Coen, UCD: Skills Acquisition and Development among Judges of the Circuit Criminal and Central Criminal Courts Dr Rachel Cahill-O'Callaghan, Cardiff University: Values and Bias: Refining Decision Making Through Education Dr Jennifer Schweppe and Prof Amanda Haynes, UL: “It takes the gleam off the harp”: The Need for Training to Address Judicial Prejudice 15.15 Break 15.30 Session 4 – Trauma-Informed Judging Chair: Dr Rachel Cahill-O'Callaghan, Cardiff University Dr Jane Mulcahy, UL: Towards a Neurodevelopmentally Aware, Trauma-Responsive Judiciary in Ireland Saoirse Enright, UL: Judging the Judges: Adopting a Trauma-Responsive Approach to Judicial Decision-Making Mr Tom O’Malley, NUI Galway: The Role of Intermediaries in the Investigation and Trial of Sexual Offences 16.30 Conclusions, Final Discussion, and Next Steps 17.00 Close Registration is now open for this event – please sign up at https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZYvdeyoqzIvGtKxKbDD_KCPjwLEucn6D7xE Enquiries to: firstname.lastname@example.org or to Rónán Kennedy (Law School, National University of Ireland Galway) at +353-91-495626. Funded by the Irish Research Council.
Thursday, 9 September 2021
Today sees the publication of Ireland and the Magdalene Laundries: A Campaign for Justice (Bloomsbury 2021), co-authored by Dr Maeve O’Rourke of the Irish Centre for Human Rights at NUI Galway and Claire McGettrick (IRC postgraduate research scholar, UCD), Assoc. Prof. Katherine O’Donnell (School of Philosophy, UCD), Assoc. Prof. James M Smith (English Department, Boston College) and Mari Steed (co-founder, Justice for Magdalenes Research & Adoption Rights Alliance). The authors are members of the voluntary Justice for Magdalenes Research group. The book is accompanied by an online archive of its sources, available at www.jfmresearch.com/bookarchive/. Publication was supported by the NUI Galway Moore Institute Grant-in-Aid of Publication Fund. All royalties will be donated to Empowering People in Care (EPIC). The writing of Ireland and the Magdalene Laundries was prompted by survivors’ expression of their desire that the truth of their experiences is told, that the history of Ireland’s Magdalene Laundries is taught in schools and colleges, and that what they and the women who are now deceased have suffered is never allowed to happen again. The book provides a detailed account of life in the Magdalene institutions through the use of survivor testimony and numerous other sources. It chronicles and analyses the strategies of the voluntary ‘Justice for Magdalenes’ campaign which contributed to achieving the State’s apology and establishment of a ‘redress’ scheme in 2013. Extending to the present-day, the book addresses the deep-seated culture and practices within numerous arms of the State that have led to continuing human rights abuses towards survivors and relatives of the deceased. In particular, the book critiques the State’s methods of investigation, its approaches to providing ‘redress’, and its resistance to truth-telling and to the disclosure of records. The book concludes by considering the need for ‘transformative’ reparations, transitional justice, and a new approach to protecting constitutional and human rights as the Irish State enters its second century of independence. Reviews of Ireland and the Magdalene Laundries: A Campaign for Justice include: This brave book is an archive of an unfinished movement, a survey of the continuing harms of so-called 'historical abuse', and a set of demands for law reform and political change. In places, it is also a love letter to those who survived Ireland's Magdalene laundries. In devastating detail, it shows how Irish politicians, professionals and members of religious orders have resisted demands that these women be recognised as victims of human rights abuse. More than a description of Justice for Magdalenes' campaigning and research, it is an important challenge to official histories and excuses that stubbornly carry undeserved weight in Irish public discourse. Máiréad Enright, University of Birmingham The campaign for justice for the girls and women incarcerated in Magdalene laundries is one of the greatest acts of truth-telling in the recent history of Ireland. The walls of institutional denial have had to be demolished slowly and painfully, brick by brick. The experiences of those most involved in this task, so vividly detailed in this vital book, tell us so much, not just about a history that was shamefully obscured, but about the imperative for every society to really know itself. In helping the survivors to reclaim their dignity, this indispensable book also helps the rest of us to reclaim the true meaning of shared citizenship and common humanity. Fintan O'Toole, Irish Times Journalist and Orwell Prize winner It is impossible to describe the toxic fog of shame, distortion and indifference these writers worked through so the truth of the Magdalen Laundries could be seen in a proper light. No one wanted to know. They are my heroes. Anne Enright, Author and winner of the 2007 Booker Prize